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anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) means there are abnormal cells in the lining of your anus. A pathologist looks at your cells under a microscope to check whether your anal cells look different to normal anal cells. It is not cancer but the cells might develop into cancer in the future. anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) is a premalignant lesion for anal cancer. , human papilloma virus (hpv)human immunodeficiency virus infections, post-organ transplantation patients, and men who have sex with men) and development is driven by hpv infection. Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in hiv-positive and hiv-negative men who have sex with men. Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) may be precursive for scc, and screening cytology with referral of persons with abnormality for high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy, and ain treatment, has. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) what is anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain)? Ain is the name given to the appearance of abnormal cells in the skin just inside or immediately outside the anus. Sometimes ain occurs in both places at the same time, and in women, may occur at nearby sites of the vulva (vin) and cervix (cin). Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) is a premalignant lesion of the anal mucosa that is a precursor to anal cancer. Although anal cancer is relatively uncommon, rates of this malignancy are steadily rising in the united states, and among certain high risk populations the incidence of anal cancer may exceed that of colon cancer. If anal intraepithelial neoplasia is the anal squamous-cell carcinoma precursor, dr. Goldstone said, then by ablating hsil we hopefully will prevent progression to cancer. Ideally, he was looking for a procedure that was office-based, well tolerated with minimal time out of work, afforded acceptable recurrence rates, and able to be performed by non-surgeons. a population based, case-control study has shown that anal intraepithelial neoplasia is strongly associated with hpv infection. 3 it can present as part of a multifocal disease process involving any or all sites of anogenital cancer. 13 there are aetiological and clinical parallels between anal intraepithelial neoplasia, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.